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The Multidimensional Health Questionnaire (MHQ)
by
William E. Snell, Jr., Ph. D. and
Georgette Johnson, M. A., Psy.D.

This page shows a copy of the Multidimensional Health Questionnaire.


INSTRUCTIONS: The items in this questionnaire refer to people's health. Please read each item carefully and decide to what extent it is characteristic of you. Give each item a rating of how much it applies to you by marking your response in this booklet. Use the following scale:

A = Not at all characteristic of me.
B = Slightly characteristic of me.
C = Somewhat characteristic of me.
D = Moderately characteristic of me.
E = Very characteristic of me.

EXAMPLE: Suppose you read the following statement: .
                 ....A..B..C..D..E......(1. I am in great physical health.
If you were not in great physical health, then you would circle the letter "A" to indicate that this statement is "not at all characteristic" of you. If the statement was "slightly characteristic" of you, then you would circle the letter "B." If the statement were "somewhat characteristic" of you, then you would circle the letter "C." By contrast, if you considered the statement to be "moderately characteristic" of you, then you would circle the letter "D" for that item. And finally, if the statement was "very characteristic" of you then you would indicate your response by circling the letter "E."

NOTE: Remember to respond to all 100 items, even if you are not completely sure.
Your answers will be kept in the strictest confidence.
Also, please be honest in responding to these statements.
Remember to circle only one letter for each statement on the following pages.
Please work rapidly and do not spend too much time on any one statement.

A B C D E 1. I feel anxious when I think about my health.
A B C D E 2. I have the ability to take care of any health problems that I may encounter.
A B C D E 3. I am very aware of how healthy my body feels.
A B C D E 4. I do things that keep me from becoming physically unhealthy.
A B C D E 5. The status of my physical health is determined mostly by chance happenings.
A B C D E 6. I think about my physical health all the time.
A B C D E 7. I’m very assertive when it comes to looking out for my own physical health.
A B C D E 8. I expect that my health will be excellent in the future.
A B C D E 9. I am to blame for those times when I become sick or don’t feel well.
A B C D E 10. I sometimes wonder what others think of my physical health.
A B C D E 11. I'm very motivated to be physically healthy.
A B C D E 12. When I am ill, I myself am in control of whether my health improves.
A B C D E 13. I derive a sense of self-pride from the way I handle my own physical health.
A B C D E 14. I am very satisfied with my own physical health.
A B C D E 15. The status of my physical health is determined largely by other more powerful people.
A B C D E 16. Not only am I in good physical health, but it’s quite important to me that I be in good health.
A B C D E 17. I am in good physical health.
A B C D E 18. If I am careful to avoid becoming ill, then I will be in good physical health-shape.
A B C D E 19. I am depressed about my current physical health.
A B C D E 20. I feel like my physical health is something that I myself am in charge of.
A B C D E 21. I'm worried about how healthy my body is.
A B C D E 22. I am competent enough to make sure that my physical health is in good shape.
A B C D E 23. I notice immediately when my body doesn't feel healthy.
A B C D E 24. I am motivated to keep myself from becoming physically unhealthy.
A B C D E 25. The status of my physical health is controlled by accidental happenings.
A B C D E 26. I think about my physical health more than anything else.
A B C D E 27. I’m very direct with people when it comes to my own physical health needs.
A B C D E 28. I believe that the future status of my physical health will be positive.
A B C D E 29. When I become sick or ill, I am the person to blame.
A B C D E 30. I'm very concerned with how others evaluate my physical health.
A B C D E 31. I'm strongly motivated to devote time and effort to my physical health.
A B C D E 32. During times when I am sick, my own behavior determines whether I get well.
A B C D E 33. I am proud of the way I deal with and handle my health.
A B C D E 34. I am very satisfied with the status of my physical health.
A B C D E 35. My physical health is largely controlled by people other than myself (e.g., friends, family).
A B C D E 36. Not only do I take care of my physical health, but its very important to me that I do so.
A B C D E 37. My body is in good physical shape.
A B C D E 38. I can pretty much prevent myself from becoming ill by taking good care of myself.
A B C D E 39. I am disappointed about the quality of my physical health.
A B C D E 40. My health is something that I alone am responsible for.
A B C D E 41. Thinking about my physical health leaves me with an uneasy feeling.
A B C D E 42. I have the skills and ability to ensure good physical health for myself.
A B C D E 43. I'm sensitive to internal bodily cues about my physical health.
A B C D E 44. I try to avoid engaging in behaviors that undermine my physical health.
A B C D E 45. Whether (or not) I am in good physical health is just a matter of luck.
A B C D E 46. I tend to be preoccupied with my own physical health.
A B C D E 47. I am somewhat passive about getting my health needs met.
A B C D E 48. I do not expect to suffer health problems in the future.
A B C D E 49. If I were to become ill, then I’m to blame for not taking good care of myself.
A B C D E 50. I'm very aware of what others think of my physical health.
A B C D E 51. I have a strong desire to keep myself physically healthy.
A B C D E 52. If I were to become ill, I myself would be responsible for making myself better.
A B C D E 53. I am pleased with how well I handle my own physical health.
A B C D E 54. My present degree of physical health is personally satisfying to me.
A B C D E 55. My health is largely determined by the actions of powerful others (e.g., health professionals).
A B C D E 56. Not only am I in good physical health, but it’s important to me that I stay physically healthy.
A B C D E 57. I am a well-exercised person.
A B C D E 58. If I look out for my health, then I will stay in good physical healthy and avoid illness.
A B C D E 59. When I think about my current physical health, I feel really down in the dumps.
A B C D E 60. The status of my physical health is determined largely by what I do (and don't do).
A B C D E 61. I usually worry about whether I am in good health.
A B C D E 62. I am able to cope with and to handle my physical health needs.
A B C D E 63. I know immediately when I'm not feeling physically well.
A B C D E 64. I really want to prevent myself from getting out of shape.
A B C D E 65. My physical health and shape have little or nothing to do with luck.
A B C D E 66. I’m constantly thinking about my physical fitness.
A B C D E 67. I do not hesitate to ask for what I need for my physical health.
A B C D E 68. I will probably experience a number of health problems in the future.
A B C D E 69. If I were to start feeling sick, then it would be my own fault for letting it happen.
A B C D E 70. I'm concerned about how my physical health appears to others.
A B C D E 71. It's really important to me that I keep myself in proper physical health.
A B C D E 72. Whether I recover from an illness depends in large part on what I myself do.
A B C D E 73. I have positive feelings about the way I approach my own physical health.
A B C D E 74. My current level of physical fitness is very pleasing to me.
A B C D E 75. In order to have good health, I have to act in a pleasing way to other more powerful individuals.
A B C D E 76. I keep myself physically healthy, and it’s very important to me that I stay fit and healthy.
A B C D E 77. My body needs a lot of work in be in excellent physical shape.
A B C D E 78. I will be able to avoid any illnesses, if I just take care of myself.
A B C D E 79. I feel unhappy about my physical health.
A B C D E 80. What happens to my physical health is my own doing.
A B C D E 81. I feel nervous when I think about the status of my physical health.
A B C D E 82. I have the capability to take care of my own physical health.
A B C D E 83. I'm very aware of changes in my physical health.
A B C D E 84. I am really motivated to avoid being in terrible physical shape.
A B C D E 85. I don't believe that chance or luck play any role in the status of my physical health.
A B C D E 86. I think about my physical health the majority of the time.
A B C D E 87. When it comes to my own physical health requirements, I ask for what I need.
A B C D E 88. I anticipate that my physical health will deteriorate in the future.
A B C D E 89. When something goes wrong with my own physical health, it’s my own fault.
A B C D E 90. I'm concerned about what other people think of my physical health.
A B C D E 91. I strive to keep myself in tip-top physical shape.
A B C D E 92. If I were ill, my recovery would depend on how I myself deal with the problem.
A B C D E 93. I feel good about the way I cope with my own physical health needs.
A B C D E 94. When I think about my present physical health, I am very satisfied.
A B C D E 95. My physical health is largely determined by people who have influence and control over me.
A B C D E 96. I try to stay in good physical condition, and its extremely important to me that I do so.
A B C D E 97. My physical health is in need of attention.
A B C D E 98. If I just pay attention to my health, I will be able to prevent myself from becoming sick.
A B C D E 99. I feel sad when I think about my present physical health.
A B C D E 100. Being in good physical health is a matter of my own ability and effort.
PUBLISHED BY TESTING SERVICE P. O. BOX 1548 CAPE GIRARDEAU, MISSOURI 63701
COPYRIGHT @ 1992 BY TESTING SERVICE.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. THIS TEST, OR ANY PARTS THEREOF, MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE AUTHORS (wesnell@semovm.semo.edu).
PRINTED IN U.S.A.

Scoring Instructions for
the Multidimensional Health Questionnaire (MHQ).
The Multidimensional Health Questionnaire (MHQ)
consists of 20 health-oriented subscales, each containing five items.
 
The labels, descriptions, and items for each of these subscales are listed below:
Subscale # 1. Health Anxiety: The items on the Health Anxiety (HA) subscale refer to anxious feelings associated with the status of one's health. More specifically, these items were designed to tap people's feelings of tension, discomfort and anxiety about their physical health. People who endorse these items are those who experience chronic anxiety as a result of thinking about their physical health.
1. I feel anxious when I think about my health.
21. I'm worried about how healthy my body is.
41. Thinking about my physical health leaves me with an uneasy feeling.
61. I usually worry about whether I am in good health.
81. I feel nervous when I think about the status of my physical health.
Subscale # 2. Health-Efficacy: The items on the Health-Efficacy (HE) subscale were designed to measure the extent to which people believe they have the ability, capability, skills and talents to take care of their own physical health.
2. I have the ability to take care of any health problems that I may encounter.
22. I am competent enough to make sure that my physical health is in good shape.
42. I have the skills and ability to ensure good physical health for myself.
62. I am able to cope with and to handle my physical health needs.
82. I have the capability to take care of my own physical health.
Subscale # 3. Health Consciousness: The items on the Health Consciousness (HC) subscale refer to an awareness of one's health. These items were designed to measure people's tendency to think about and to reflect about their health. People who endorse these items are those who think about that status of their physical health, and who in general are reflective about the nature of the health and wellness of their body.
3. I am very aware of how healthy my body feels.
23. I notice immediately when my body doesn't feel healthy.
43. I'm sensitive to internal bodily cues about my physical health.
63. I know immediately when I'm not feeling physically well.
83. I'm very aware of changes in my physical health.
Subscale # 4. Motivation to Avoid Unhealthiness: The items on the Motivation to Avoid Unhealthiness (Mavu) subscale refer to motivational tendency to avoid being or becoming unhealthy. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's motivational tendency to avoid poor physical health. People who endorse these items are those who are concerned about becoming unhealthy; they are motivated to avoid behaviors and activities which undermine their physical health.
4. I do things that keep me from becoming physically unhealthy.
24. I am motivated to keep myself from becoming physically unhealthy.
44. I try to avoid engaging in behaviors that undermine my physical health.
64. I really want to prevent myself from getting out of shape.
84. I am really motivated to avoid being in terrible physical shape.
Subscale # 5. Chance-Luck Health Control: The items on the Chance-Luck Health Control (CLHC) subscale refer to people's belief that their health status is determined by experiences and influences outside of their personal control--i.e., chance or luck. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's expectation that their health status is largely determined by forces which they themselves can neither anticipate nor influence. People who endorse these items are those who believe that their health is not controlled by themselves, rather that their physical health is under the influence of luck and chance.
5. The status of my physical health is determined mostly by chance happenings.
25. The status of my physical health is controlled by accidental happenings.
45. Whether (or not) I am in good physical health is just a matter of luck.
65. My physical health and shape have little or nothing to do with luck. (R)
85. I don't believe that chance or luck play any role in the status of my physical health. (R)
Subscale # 6. Health Preoccupation: Health Preoccupation (HP) is defined as the tendency to become absorbed in, obsessed with, and engrossed with the physical health aspects of one’s life, to the extent that one virtually excludes from one’s mind thoughts of other matters. People who report higher scores on the health preoccupation scale tend to be cognitively obsessed with their physical health.
6. I think about my physical health all the time.
26. I think about my physical health more than anything else.
46. I tend to be preoccupied with my own physical health.
66. I’m constantly thinking about my physical fitness.
86. I think about my physical health the majority of the time.
Subscale # 7. Health Assertiveness: The items on the Health Assertiveness (HA) subscale refer to the tendency of being assertive about the health-related aspects of one's life. In particular, the items on this subscale were designed to measure the characteristic of being assertive about one’s health needs (i.e., decisive about one's health and self-reliant about the pursuit and fulfillment of one's health). People who have high scores on the health assertiveness subscale have a behavioral predisposition to be agentic and instrumental in the fulfillment of their health-related needs and requirements. They tend to take an instrumental, self-directed (but not selfish) orientation to their health, and they tend to rely more on themselves than on others in making decisions about their health needs.
7. I’m very assertive when it comes to looking out for my own physical health.
27. I’m very direct with people when it comes to my own physical health needs.
47. I am somewhat passive about getting my health needs met. (R)
67. I do not hesitate to ask for what I need for my physical health.
87. When it comes to my own physical health requirements, I ask for what I need.
Subscale # 8. Health Expectations-Optimism: The items on the Health Expectations-Optimism (HEO) subscale refer to an expectation that one will continue to experience positive physical health in the future. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's belief that their health will continue to be excellent and robust. People who endorse these items anticipate that their future physical health will continue to be good.
8. I expect that my health will be excellent in the future.
28. I believe that the future status of my physical health will be positive.
48. I do not expect to suffer health problems in the future.
68. I will probably experience a number of health problems in the future. (R)
88. I anticipate that my physical health will deteriorate in the future. (R)
Subscale # 9. Health Illness Self-Blame: The items on the Health Illness Self-Blame (HISB) subscale were designed to measure the tendency to attribute blame to oneself when one becomes sick or ill.
9. I am to blame for those times when I become sick or don’t feel well.
29. When I become sick or ill, I am the person to blame.
49. If I were to become ill, then I’m to blame for not taking good care of myself.
69. If I were to start feeling sick, then it would be my own fault for letting it happen.
89. When something goes wrong with my own physical health, it’s my own fault.
Subscale # 10. Health Monitoring: The items on the Health Monitoring (HM) subscale refer to an awareness of other people's reactions to one's health. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's public concern about the image which their health (or lack thereof) projects to others. People who endorse these items are those who are concerned about the appearance of their health to others, the impression their health makes on others, and how healthy and well others consider them to be.
10. I sometimes wonder what others think of my physical health.
30. I'm very concerned with how others evaluate my physical health.
50. I'm very aware of what others think of my physical health.
70. I'm concerned about how my physical health appears to others.
90. I'm concerned about what other people think of my physical health.
Subscale # 11. Motivation for Healthiness: The items on the Motivation for Healthiness (Mfh) subscale refer to the motivation to pursue positive physical health. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's motivation to keep in excellent physical health. People who endorse these items are those who are motivated to attend to the physical health of their body, to engage in activities which promote their physical health, and to strive to maintain the wellness and integrity of their physical health.
11. I'm very motivated to be physically healthy.
31. I'm strongly motivated to devote time and effort to my physical health.
51. I have a strong desire to keep myself physically healthy.
71. It's really important to me that I keep myself in proper physical health.
91. I strive to keep myself in tip-top physical shape.
Subscale # 12. Health Illness Management: The items on the Health Illness Management (HIM) subscale were designed to measure the extent to which people believe they have control over any illnesses that might befall them.
12. When I am ill, I myself am in control of whether my health improves.
32. During times when I am sick, my own behavior determines whether I get well.
52. If I were to become ill, I myself would be responsible for making myself better.
72. Whether I recover from an illness depends in large part on what I myself do.
92. If I were ill, my recovery would depend on how I myself deal with the problem.
Subscale # 13. Health Esteem: The items on the Health Esteem (HE) subscale were designed to measure the extent to which people derive a sense of esteem from manner in which they handle their physical health. More specifically, these items are concerned with how positive individuals feel about their handling of their physical wellness. People who endorse these items are those who feel good about the way they cope with their health; they feel positive esteem about their approach to their own physical health.
13. I derive a sense of self-pride from the way I handle my own physical health.
33. I am proud of the way I deal with and handle my health.
53. I am pleased with how well I handle my own physical health.
73. I have positive feelings about the way I approach my own physical health.
93. I feel good about the way I cope with my own physical health needs.
Subscale # 14. Health Satisfaction: The items on the Health Satisfaction (HS) subscale concern people's satisfaction with the status of their health needs. More specifically, these items were designed to measure the extent to which people indicate that their health needs are currently being met in a pleasing and satisfying manner. People who endorse these items are highly satisfied with their physical health.
14. I am very satisfied with my own physical health.
34. I am very satisfied with the status of my physical health.
54. My present degree of physical health is personally satisfying to me.
74. My current level of physical fitness is very pleasing to me.
94. When I think about my present physical health, I am very satisfied.
Subscale # 15. Powerful-Other Health Control: The items on the Powerful-Other Health Control (POHC) subscale were designed to measure the extent to which people believe that other more powerful individuals (e.g., friends, family, health professionals) have control over their own physical health..
15. The status of my physical health is determined largely by other more powerful people.
35. My physical health is largely controlled by people other than myself (e.g., friends, family).
55. My health is largely determined by the actions of powerful others (e.g., health professionals).
75. In order to have good health, I have to act in a pleasing way to other more powerful individuals.
95. My physical health is largely determined by people who have influence and control over me.
Subscale # 16. Health Self-Schemata: The items on the Health Self-Schemata (HSS) subscale were designed to measure self-schematic tendencies associated with one’s health. More specifically, these items were designed to measure the extent to which people consider themselves as physically health and for whom good physical health is very important. People who endorse these items not only believe that they possess the skills and abilities necessary to their own personal physical needs, they also consider it very important that they are physically healthy.
16. Not only am I in good physical health, but it’s quite important to me that I be in good health.
36. Not only do I take care of my physical health, but its very important to me that I do so.
56. Not only am I in good physical health, but it’s important to me that I stay physically healthy.
76. I keep myself physically healthy, and it’s very important to me that I stay fit and healthy.
96. I try to stay in good physical condition, and its extremely important to me that I do so.
Subscale # 17. Health Status: The items on the Health Status (HS) subscale concerns people's assessment of the physical status of their body. More specifically, these items were designed to measure the extent to which people assess their body as being in excellent and robust health. People who endorse these items believe that they are in excellent physical health.
17. I am in good physical health.
37. My body is in good physical shape.
57. I am a well-exercised person.
77. My body needs a lot of work in be in excellent physical shape. (R)
97. My physical health is in need of attention. (R)
Subscale # 18. Health Illness Prevention: The items on the Health Illness Prevention (HIP) subscale were designed to measure peoples’ belief that they themselves are in charge of preventing themselves from becoming ill.
18. If I am careful to avoid becoming ill, then I will be in good physical health-shape.
38. I can pretty much prevent myself from becoming ill by taking good care of myself.
58. If I look out for my health, then I will stay in good physical healthy and avoid illness.
78. I will be able to avoid any illnesses, if I just take care of myself.
98. If I just pay attention to my health, I will be able to prevent myself from becoming sick.
Subscale # 19. Health Depression: Health Depression (HD) is defined as a tendency to evaluate the health-related aspects of one’s life in a negative fashion and to feel depressed about the status of one's physical health.
19. I am depressed about my current physical health.
39. I am disappointed about the quality of my physical health.
59. When I think about my current physical health, I feel really down in the dumps.
79. I feel unhappy about my physical health.
99. I feel sad when I think about my present physical health.
Subscale # 20. Internal Health Control: The items on the Internal Health Control (IHC) subscale refer to people's belief that their health status is determined by their own personal control. More specifically, these items were designed to measure people's expectation that they themselves can exert an influence on their health. People who endorse these items are those who believe that they can determine whether their physical health is positive or negative.
20. I feel like my physical health is something that I myself am in charge of.
40. My health is something that I alone am responsible for.
60. The status of my physical health is determined largely by what I do (and don't do).
80. What happens to my physical health is my own doing.
100. Being in good physical health is a matter of my own ability and effort.
Copyright - 1996
 

Scoring Instructions for the Multidimensional Health Questionnaire (MHQ):
CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR MHQ ITEMS: The items assigned to each of the 20 MHQ subscales are repeated every 20 items beginning with item 1 (e.g., Subscale 1 = items 1, 21, 41, 61, 81). Any items designated with (R) are recoded so that A = E, B = D, C = C, D = B, and E = A. Then the items are scored so that A = 0; B = 1; C = 2; D = 3; and E = 4. Next, the 5 items assigned to each subscale are summed so that higher scores correspond to greater amounts of each respective health-related tendency.

Permission is granted to individuals to use
the Multidimensional Health Questionnaire for research purposes.
Permission granted by William E. Snell, Jr. on February 12, 1997.

[Return to Dr. Snell's homepage.] Department of Psychology,
SE Missouri State University
Send comments and inquires to:
wesnell@semo.edu
Copyright @ 1998
William E. Snell, Jr. All rights reserved.
This site was last updated on March 30, 2016