Visits:  Hit Counter
The Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ)
William E. Snell, Jr., SE Missouri State University
Phil Finney, SE Missouri State University
Lisa J. Godwin, SE Missouri State University

This page shows a copy of the AIDS Discussion Strategy Scale (ADSS).

 

Address all correspondence to: 
William E. Snell, Jr. (PHONE: 573-651-2447; FAX: 573-651-2176),
Department of Psychology, One University Plaza #5700, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri 63701, USA. Address E-mail to: wesnell@SEMO.EDU.

This page shows a copy of the Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ):


AIDS - I
INSTRUCTIONS: The items listed below refer to people's beliefs about the topic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). We are interested in whether you agree or disagree with these statements. As such, there are no right or wrong answers, only your own individual opinions. To indicate your reactions to these statements, use the following scale:
A = Agree.
B = Slightly Agree.
C = Neither Agree nor Disagree.
D = Slightly Disagree.
E = Disagree.

REMEMBER: There are no right or wrong responses; only your opinions. Be sure to respond to each and every statement; leave no blanks. 

1. Homosexuality is the cause of AIDS.
2. People with AIDS don't really have a right to confidentiality about their disease.
3. People ought to notify their employees if they contact AIDS.
4. Not enough money is being spent on AIDS-related research.
5. AIDS can be transmitted by being in the same room with an AIDS patient.
6. People need education to learn how to avoid getting the virus AIDS.
7. If it weren't for homosexuals, we wouldn't have the disease AIDS.
8. AIDS victims have a right to privacy about their lives and lifestyles.
9. Businesses should have the right to fire people if they have AIDS.
10. The cost of medical care for AIDS patients should be paid by the government.
11. AIDS can be transmitted by shaking hands with an AIDS patient.
12. AIDS education is an appropriate task for schools to perform.
13. The sexual promiscuity of homosexuals is the reason why AIDS exists.
14. The government should be able to test anyone for AIDS.
15. A person can get AIDS from fellow workers at a job.
16. The government is not doing enough to fight AIDS.
17. AIDS can be transmitted by sharing eating utensils with an AIDS patient.
18. Sexual education about AIDS is necessary at school.
19. AIDS is really a punishment sent from God for the sinful acts of homosexuality.
20. AIDS infected children should be kept out of public school.
21. Having a co-worker with AIDS would not bother me.
22. AIDS is a serious national problem that deserves government attention.
23. AIDS can be transmitted by kissing an individual with AIDS.
24. It is important that students learn about AIDS in their classes.
25. AIDS is God's way of getting rid of homosexuals.
26. Identifying those people with AIDS should be a high priority.
27. Employees have a right to know if any of their co-workers have AIDS.
28. The Federal government ought to fund education on AIDS.
29. People can catch AIDS by giving CPR to an individual with AIDS.
30. Children need instruction about AIDS in their school curriculum.

AIDS - II
INSTRUCTIONS: The items listed below refer to people's beliefs about the topic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). We are interested in whether you agree or disagree with these statements. As such, there are no right or wrong answers, only your own individual opinions. To indicate your reactions to these statements, use the following scale:
A = Agree.
B = Slightly Agree.
C = Neither Agree nor Disagree.
D = Slightly Disagree.
E = Disagree.

REMEMBER: There are no right or wrong responses; only your opinions. Be sure to respond to each and every statement; leave no blanks. 

1. I don't want to talk or interact with anyone with AIDS.
2. We have a social obligation to help those with AIDS.
3. People who describe AIDS as an epidemic are exaggerating its true nature.
4. As always, science will eventually find a cure for AIDS.
5. AIDS is really not my problem; it's somebody else's.
6. AIDS is not my problem.
7. AIDS is not a threat to me.
8. The AIDS crisis is really removed from me.
9. People who die from AIDS are being punished for their past wrongs.
10. People are blowing the issue of AIDS way out of proportion.
11. People should test themselves for AIDS.
12. People who get AIDS can blame only themselves.
13. Only people from California have been affected by AIDS.
14. Part of the problem with AIDS is that people don't talk about it.
15. The AIDS epidemic will soon be a financial burden on the U.S. economy.
16. You can't teach young children about AIDS.
17. Men and women don't really need to discuss AIDS with each other.
18. AIDS has become a significant problem in prison populations.
19. A cure for AIDS is inevitable.
20. AIDS is easy to get.
21. AIDS may eventually bankrupt the U.S. health care system.
22. People with AIDS should not be allowed to work in public school.
23. People with AIDS should not be allowed to handle food in restaurants.
24. People with AIDS should not be allowed to work with patients in hospitals.
25. AIDS is not as big a problem as the media suggests.
26. I am not the kind of person who is likely to get AIDS.
27. I am less likely than most people to get AIDS.
28. I'd rather get any other disease than AIDS.
29. I've heard enough about AIDS, and I don't want to hear any more about it.
30. Living in San Francisco would increase anyone's chances of getting AIDS.
31. If a free blood test was available to see if you have the AIDS virus, I would take it.
32. AIDS is God's punishment for immorality.
33. AIDS patients offend me morally.
34. If I knew someone with AIDS, it would be hard for me to continue that relationship.
35. Children with AIDS should not be allowed to attend public schools.

AIDS - III
INSTRUCTIONS: The items listed below refer to people's beliefs about the topic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). We are interested in whether you agree or disagree with these statements. As such, there are no right or wrong answers, only your own individual opinions. To indicate your reactions to these statements, use the following scale:
A = Agree.
B = Slightly Agree.
C = Neither Agree nor Disagree.
D = Slightly Disagree.
E = Disagree.

REMEMBER: There are no right or wrong responses; only your opinions. Be sure to respond to each and every statement; leave no blanks. 

1. The family of AIDS victims ought to have the right to participate in medical decisions.
2. People with AIDS should not be admitted to medical hospitals.
3. Doctors can catch AIDS if they treat patients with this disease.
4. AIDS patients will contaminate medical staff and other hospital patients.
5. It's important to maintain a safe blood banking system, because of AIDS.
6. Health care workers can catch AIDS in medical situations.
7. Medicine has a test to identify whether a person has AIDS.
8. The medical test for AIDS will not always identify a recently-infected person.
9. There's a vaccine that prevents the spread of AIDS.
10. There are effective medical treatments for those with AIDS.
11. Doctors and nurses are at risk for catching AIDS from infected patients.
12. No medical assistance person has ever caught AIDS from a patient.
13. AIDS blood tests should be administered to everyone in hospitals.
14. Hospitals should have the right to test all patients for AIDS.
15. A doctor with AIDS should not be allowed to treat patients.
16. A hospital worker should not be required to work with AIDS patients.
17. AIDS patients have as much right to quality medical care as anyone else.
18. AIDS makes a medical job a high-risk occupation.
19. Dealing with AIDS patients is different from dealing with other types of patients.
20. The high cost of treating AIDS patients is unfair to other people in need of care.
21. Working with AIDS patients can be a rewarding experience for medical personnel.
22. Hospital personnel should go out of their way to be helpful to a patient with AIDS.
23. People with AIDS can be cured if they seek medical attention.
24. To get AIDS, a person must have intimate sexual or blood contact with an AIDS carrier.
25. The disease AIDS can be transmitted by the exchange of blood (or blood products).
26. AIDS has been identified in hemophiliacs (people who bleed easily).
27. AIDS has been linked to blood transfusion.
28. AIDS is probably in most of the nations' blood supply.
29. A blood test can identify testing for AIDS.
30. People get AIDS from blood transfusion.

AIDS - IV
INSTRUCTIONS: The items listed below refer to people's beliefs about the topic of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). We are interested in whether you agree or disagree with these statements. As such, there are no right or wrong answers, only your own individual opinions. To indicate your reactions to these statements, use the following scale:
A = Agree.
B = Slightly Agree.
C = Neither Agree nor Disagree.
D = Slightly Disagree.
E = Disagree.

REMEMBER: There are no right or wrong responses; only your opinions. Be sure to respond to each and every statement; leave no blanks. 

1. AIDS is a serious challenge to the notion of recreational sex.
2. Because of AIDS, everyone has a responsibility to practice healthful sexual behaviors.
3. Condoms offer protection against the spread of AIDS.
4. AIDS cannot be transmitted by heterosexual (male-female) sexual activity.
5. People catch AIDS from their sexual partners.
6. The more sexual partners people have, the greater their chance of acquiring AIDS.
7. AIDS is associated with multiple anonymous sexual contacts.
8. AIDS is transmitted by intimate sexual contact.
9. People can contact AIDS even though they have had sex with only one person.
10. Condoms are a safe shield against AIDS.
11. AIDS is essentially a sexually transmitted disease.
12. People can contract AIDS from sexual contact with a single infected person.
13. Any sexually active people can get AIDS.
14. People get AIDS from sex.
15. People don't engage in sex very much nowadays because of AIDS.
16. AIDS is transmitted primarily through sexual relations.
17. Proper use of condoms can reduce the risk of catching AIDS.
18. The use of condoms can prevent the spread of AIDS.
19. Heterosexuals who use condoms can lessen their risk for getting AIDS.
20. People who have "one-night stands" will probably catch AIDS.
Copyright - 1991

Scoring Instructions for the Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ):
Purpose
        The spread of AIDS (i.e., acquired immune deficiency syndrome) poses such a severe threat to society that a variety of stereotypes are beginning to proliferate about this disease. Snell, Finney, and Godwin (1991) conducted an investigation to examine several stereotypes about AIDS. More specifically, they developed and provided preliminary validation of the psychometric properties of the Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ), a multidimensional measure of stereotypes about AIDS. The selection of the particular stereotypes about AIDS measured by the SAAQ was based on a literature review about AIDS stereotypes. Four categories of AIDS-related stereotypes (with multiple subscales in each category) are measured by the SAAQ: (A) global stereotypic beliefs about AIDS, (B) personal attitudes about AIDS, (C) medical issues about AIDS, and (D) sexual issues about AIDS. The items in Section A of the SAAQ (Global Stereotypes about AIDS) form 4 separate subscales concerned with stereotypes about (1) the need for AIDS-related education; (2) AIDS-related confidentiality; (3) the transmission of AIDS; and (4) AIDS is caused by homosexuality. The items in Section B of the SAAQ (Personal Attitudes About AIDS) form 5 separate subscales concerned with stereotypes about (1) the desire to avoid those afflicted with AIDS; (2) AIDS is not perceived as self-relevant; (3) a closeminded approach to AIDS; (4) the issue of AIDS is being exaggerated; and (5) the notion that AIDS is a moral punishment. The items in Section C of the SAAQ (Medical Issues about AIDS) form 4 separate subscales concerned with stereotypes about (1) the belief that AIDS is a threat to medical staff; (2) protecting the U.S. blood supply system from AIDS; (3) a cure for AIDS; and (4) AIDS testing should be conducted. The items in Section D of the SAAQ (Sexual Issues about AIDS) form 2 separate subscales concerned with stereotypes about (1) the relationship between AIDS and sexual activity and (2) the prevention of AIDS through the use of condoms.
Description
        The Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ) consists of 4 sections. Section A has 30 items; Section B has 35 items; Section C has 30 items; and Section D has 20 items. In responding to the SAAS, individuals are asked to indicate how much they agree versus disagree with each statement, using a 5-point Likert format: agree (+2); slightly agree (+1); neither agree nor disagree (0); slightly disagree (-1); and disagree (-2). In order to create subscale scores, the items on each subscale are averaged. Higher positive (negative) scores correspond to greater agreement (disagreement) with the stereotypes measured by the SAAQ.
Response Mode and Timing
        People respond to the Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire by using a computer scan sheet to darken a response (either A, B, C, D, or E) for each item. The entire questionnaire (i.e., all 4 sections) usually takes about 35-45 minutes to complete.
Scoring
        The SAAQ consists of 15 separate subscales. Several SAAS items are reversed-scored (A8, A20, A21, C2, C12, AND D4) before the subscales are computed. The 4 subscales for Section A are: (1) the need for AIDS-related education (A4, A6, A12, A18, A20, A22, A24, A28, A30); (2) AIDS-related confidentiality (A2, A3, A8, A9, A14, A21, A26, A27); (3) the transmission of AIDS (A5, A11, A15, A17, A23, A29); and (4) AIDS is caused by homosexuality (A1, A7, A13, A19, A25). The 5 subscales for Section B are: (1) the desire to avoid those afflicted with AIDS (B1, B22, B23, B24, B34, B35); (2) AIDS was not perceived as self-relevant (B5, B6, B7, B8); (3) a closeminded approach to AIDS (B13, B16, B17); (4) the issue of AIDS is being exaggerated (B3, B10, B25, B29); and (5) the notion that AIDS is a moral punishment (B9, B32, B33). The 4 subscales for Section C are: (1) the belief that AIDS is a threat to medical staff (C3, C4, C6, C11, C12, C18); (2) protecting the U.S. blood supply system from AIDS (C2, C5, C7, C17, C25, C27); (3) cure for AIDS (C9, C10, C23); and (4) AIDS testing should be conducted (C13, C14). The 2 subscales for Section D are: (1) the relationship between AIDS and sexual activity (D1, D2, D4 TO D9, D12, D13) and (2) the prevention of AIDS through the use of condoms (D3, D10, D17, D18, D19).
Reliability
        Snell, Finney, and Godwin (1991) found that for Section A (Stereotypic Beliefs About AIDS) of the SAAQ, the reliabilities ranged from a low of .75 to a high of .85; that for Section B (Personal Attitudes About AIDS) of the SAAQ, the reliabilities ranged from a low of .72 to a high of .87; that for Section C (Medical Issues related to AIDS) of the SAAQ, the reliabilities ranged from a low of .64 to a high of .83; and that for Section D (Sexuality and AIDS) of the SAAQ, the Cronbach alpha's were .86 and .78, respectively.
Validity
        Snell et al. (1991) report that those individuals who endorsed a wide range of "negative," inaccurate stereotypes about AIDS, as measured by their responses to SAAS, reported greater AIDS-related anxiety. In particular, people who believed that AIDS was not relevant to them, who were closeminded about AIDS, and who believed that the media was exaggerating the issue of AIDS indicated that they felt sufficient AIDS anxiety to inhibited their sexual activity. Additionally, it was found that those who believed in the importance of AIDS education reported that they would be more likely to use direct, rational strategies to start a conversation about AIDS with a potential sexual partner. One other set of findings reported by Snell et al. (1991) dealt with the issue of men's and women's stereotypic reactions to AIDS. It was found that both males and females were supportive of greater educational efforts about AIDS, although interestingly enough they also were somewhat supportive of widespread mandatory testing for AIDS. In addition, other evidence indicated a consistent pattern of gender differences in men's and women's stereotypic beliefs about AIDS, with the findings generally suggesting that women expressed more positive and less prejudicial AIDS-related attitudes than did males. Snell et al. (1991) also found that females' endorsement of several socially undesirable stereotypes about women was predictive of their agreement (and disagreement) with a number of prejudicial (and non-prejudicial) stereotypes about AIDS and AIDS-afflicted individuals, as measured by the SAAS. Females who held a set of disparaging beliefs about women (e.g., that women are more passive, vulnerable, and moral than men, that women are sexually passive and sexual teases) reported adhering to a variety of stigmatizing beliefs and attitudes about AIDS, as measured by the SAAQ.
References
        Snell, W. E., Jr., Finney, P. D., & Godwin, L. J. (1991). Stereotypes about AIDS. Contemporary Social Psychology, 15, 18-38.
 

SPSS codes

 

COMMENT        ******************************************************

RECODE              A1 TO A30,

                           B1 TO B35,

                           C1 TO C30,

                           D1 TO D20

                           (1=2)(2=1)(3=0)(4=-1)(5=-2)

VALUE LABEL    A1 TO A30,

                          B1 TO B35,

                          C1 TO C30,

                          D1 TO D20

                         (-2)DISAGREE

                         (-1)SLIGHTLY DISAGREE

                         (0)NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE

                         (1)SLIGHTLY AGREE

                         (2)AGREE

COMMENT        ****************************************************

COMPUTE        SUBA1 = A1+A7+A13+A19+A25

COMPUTE        SUBA2 = A2+A8+A14+A20+A26

COMPUTE        SUBA3 = A3+A9+A15+A21+A27

COMPUTE        SUBA4 = A4+A10+A16+A22+A28

COMPUTE        SUBA5 = A5+A11+A17+A23+A29

COMPUTE        SUBA6 = A6+A12+A18+A24+A30

VAR LABEL      SUBA1 HOMOSEXUALS CAUSE AIDS

VAR LABEL      SUBA2 NO RIGHTS FOR AIDS CARRIERS

VAR LABEL      SUBA3 AIDS IN A WORK SETTING

VAR LABEL      SUBA4 FEDS SHOULD SPEND MORE ON AIDS

VAR LABEL      SUBA5 AIDS TRANSMISSION

VAR LABEL      SUBA6 CHILDREN, SCHOOL, AND AIDS

COMMENT        ***********************************************

RECODE           D4,C2,C12,A8,A20,A21

                        (-2=2)(-1=1)(0=0)(1=-1)(2=-2)

COMMENT        ***************************************************

COMPUTE        EDUCAT=SUM(A4,A6,A12,A18,A20,A22,A24,A28,A30)

COMPUTE        CONFID=SUM(A2,A3,A8,A9,A14,A21,A26,A27)

COMPUTE        TRANSM=SUM(A5,A11,A15,A17,A23,A29)

COMPUTE        HOMOSEX=SUM(A1,A7,A13,A19,A25)

COMPUTE        EDUCAT=EDUCAT/9

COMPUTE        CONFID=CONFID/8

COMPUTE        TRANSM=TRANSM/6

COMPUTE        HOMOSEX=HOMOSEX/5

VAR LABEL      EDUCAT AIDS EDUCATION IS NEEDED

VAR LABEL      CONFID NO CONFIDENTIALITY FOR AIDS PATIENTS

VAR LABEL      TRANSM AIDS CAN BE TRANSMITTED BY THESE AVENUES

VAR LABEL      HOMOSEX HOMOSEXUALITY IS CAUSE OF AIDS

COMMENT        *******************************************************

COMPUTE        AVOID=SUM(B1,B22,B23,B24,B34,B35)

COMPUTE        NOTSELF=SUM(B5,B6,B7,B8)

COMPUTE        CLOSE=SUM(B13,B16,B17)

COMPUTE        EXAGGER=SUM(B3,B10,B25,B29)

COMPUTE        MORAL=SUM(B9,B32,B33)

COMPUTE        AVOID=AVOID/6

COMPUTE        NOTSELF=NOTSELF/4

COMPUTE        CLOSE=CLOSE/3

COMPUTE        EXAGGER=EXAGGER/4

COMPUTE        MORAL=MORAL/3

VAR LABEL      AVOID SECLUDE PEOPLE WITH AIDS

VAR LABEL      NOTSELF AIDS IS NOT MY PROBLEM

VAR LABEL      CLOSE AIDS CLOSEMINDEDNESS

VAR LABEL      EXAGGER EXAGGERATED MEDIA ATTENTION

VAR LABEL      MORAL AIDS IS MORAL PUNISHMENT

COMMENT        ****************************************************

COMPUTE        MED=SUM(C3,C4,C6,C11,C12,C18)

COMPUTE        PURE=SUM(C2,C5,C7,C17,C25,C27)

COMPUTE        CURE=SUM(C9,C10,C23)

COMPUTE        TOALL=SUM(C13,C14)

COMPUTE        MED=MED/6

COMPUTE        PURE=PURE/6

COMPUTE        CURE=CURE/3

COMPUTE        TOALL=TOALL/2

VAR LABEL      MED AIDS IS A MEDICAL RISK

VAR LABEL      PURE AIDS IS RELATED TO BLOOK

VAR LABEL      CURE THERE IS AN AIDS CURE

VAR LABEL      TOALL TEST ALL FOR AIDS

COMMENT        *******************************************************

COMPUTE        CONDOM=SUM(D3,D10,D17,D18,D19)

COMPUTE        SEXAID=SUM(D1,D2,D4 TO D9,D12,D13)

COMPUTE        CONDOM=CONDOM/5

COMPUTE        SEXAID=SEXAID/10

VAR LABEL      CONDOM CONDOMS PREVENT SPREAD OF AIDS

VAR LABEL      SEXAID SEX IS RELATED TO AIDS

COMMENT        *******************************************************

 

Permission is granted to individuals to use
the Stereotypes About AIDS Questionnaire (SAAQ) for research purposes.

Permission granted by William E. Snell, Jr. on February 14, 1997.


This site was last updated on Sunday, June 17, 2007 .
Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, SE Missouri State University
Send comments and inquires to wesnell@semo.edu

Copyright @ 1997 to Dr. William E. Snell, Jr.