- INSTRUCTIONS: We would like to
know something about people's beliefs about male
sexuality. For this reason we are asking you to respond
to a number of items that deal with male sexuality,
indicating the extent to which you disagree/agree with
the statements. For each of the items on this page, you
will be indicating your answer on the computer scoreable
answer sheet by darkening in the number (or letter) that
corresponds to your response. Your response should be
based on the sorts of things that you believe about male
sexuality. Use the following scale to indicate your
degree of agreements/disagreement with each item:
- A =
- B =
- C =
Neither agree nor
- D =
- E =
NOTE: There are no right or wrong
answers. Your choices should be a description of your own
- 1. Men should not be held.
- 2. Most men believe that sex is a
- 3. Men generally want to be the guiding
participant in sexual behavior.
- 4. Most men are ready for sex at any
- 5. Most men desire physical contact only
as a prelude to sex.
- 6. The ultimate sexual goal in men's mind
- 7. Lack of an erection will always spoil
sex for a man.
- 8. From a man's perspective, good sex
usually has an "earthshaking" aspect to it.
- 9. Men don't really like to plan their
- 10. Most men are sexually well-adjusted.
- 11. Only a narrow range of emotions
should be permitted to men.
- 12. Men are almost always concerned with
their sexual performance.
- 13. Most men don't want to assume a
passive role in sex.
- 14. Men usually want sex, regardless of
where they are.
- 15. Among men, touching is simply the
first step towards sex.
- 16. Men are not sexually satisfied with
any behavior other than intercourse.
- 17. With out an erection a men is
- 18. Quite, lazy sex is usually not all
that satisfying for a man.
- 19. Men usually like good sex to
- 20. Most men have healthy attitudes
- 21. A man who is vulnerable is a sissy.
- 22. In sex, It's a man's performance that
- 23. Sexual activity is easier if the man
assumes a leadership role.
- 24. Men are always ready to for sex.
- 25. A men never really wants
"only" a hug or caress.
- 26. Men want their sexual experiences t
end with intercourse.
- 27. A sexual situation cannot be
gratifying for a man unless he "can get it up."
- 28. Sexual climax is a necessary part of
men's sexual behavior.
- 29. Most men yearn for spontaneous sex
that requires little conscious effort.
- 30. In these days of increased openness
about sex, most men have become free of past inhibiting
ideas about their sexual behavior.
- 31. A man should be careful to hide his
- 32. Men's sexuality is often
goal-orientated in its nature.
- 33. Sex is a man's responsibility.
- 34. Most men come to a sexual situation
in a state of constant desire.
- 35. Men use physical contact as a request
- 36. Men believe that every sexual act
should include intercourse.
- 37. Any kind of sexual activity for a man
requires an erection.
- 38. Satisfying sexual activity for a man
always includes increasing excitement and passion.
- 39. A satisfying sexual experience for a
man does not really require all that much forethought.
- 40. Most men have progressive ideas about
- 41. It is unacceptable for men to reveal
their deepest concerns.
- 42. Men usually think of sex as work.
- 43. A man is supposed to initiate sexual
- 44. Men are perpetually ready for sex.
- 45. Many men are dissatisfied with any
bodily contact which is not followed by sexual activity.
- 46. Many men are only interested in
sexual intercourse as a form of sexual stimulation.
- 47. An erection is considered by almost
all men as vital for sex.
- 48. Men's sexual desire is often
"imperative and driven" in nature.
- 49. Men consider sex artificial if it is
- 50. In these days of wider availability
of accurate information, most men are realistic about
their sexual activities.
- 51. Intense emotional expressiveness
should not be discussed by men.
- 52. Sex is a pressure-filled activity for
- 53. Men are responsible for choosing
- 54. Men usually never get enough sex.
- 55. For men, kissing and touching are
merely the preliminaries to sexual activity.
- 56. During sex, men are always thinking
about getting t intercourse.
- 57. Without an erection, sexual activity
for a man will end in misery.
- 58. Sexual activity must end with an
orgasm for a man to feel satisfied.
- 59. For men, natural sex means "just
doing it instinctively."
- 60. Most men have realistic insight into
their sexual preferences and desires.
- Copyright - 1986
- Scoring Instructions for
Stereotypes About Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS)
The Stereotypes About Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS)
William E. Snell, Jr.,
Southeast Missouri State
- Address all correspondence to:
William E. Snell, Jr.,
(PHONE: 573-651-2447: FAX: 573-651-2176),
Southeast Missouri State University, One University
Cape Girardeau, MO 63701.
Address E-MAIL to: wesnell@SEMO.EDU.
- Cognitive approaches to human sexuality
have recently received considerable attention. However,
there has been a paucity of instruments designed to deal
with the types of cognitive beliefs which might influence
sexual feelings and behaviors. Snell and his colleagues
attempted to address this concern through the development
and validation of the Stereotypes About Male Sexuality
Scale (SAMSS; Snell, Belk, & Hawkins, 1986; 1990;
Snell, Hawkins, & Belk, 1988). The Stereotypes About
Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS) is an objective self-report
questionnaire that is designed to measure 10 distinctive
stereotypic beliefs about males and their sexuality (cf.
Zilbergeld, 1978; chapter 4): (1) Inexpressiveness; (2)
Sex Equals Performance; (3) Males Orchestrate Sex; (4)
Always Ready for Sex; (5) Touching Leads to Sex; (6) Sex
Equals Intercourse; (7) Sex Requires Erection; (8) Sex
Requires Orgasm; (9) Spontaneous Sex; and (10) Sexually
Aware Men. The 10 subscales on the Stereotypes About Male
Sexuality Scale (SAMSS) can be used in research as
individual tendency measures of stereotypes about males
and their sexuality; alternatively, the 10 SAMSS
subscales can be used in correlational or experiemental
investigations on male sexuality.
- The Stereotypes About Male Sexuality
Scale (SAMSS) consists of 60 items. Individuals respond
to the 60 items on the SAMSS using a 5-point Liker scale:
agree (+2); slightly agree (+1); neither agree nor
disagree (0); slightly disagree (-1); and disagree (-2).
- Response Mode and Timing
- Individuals typically indicate their
responses on a computer scan sheet by darkening in a
response ranging from A (agree) to E (disagree). The
questionnaire usually takes about 20-25 minutes to
- Individuals respond to the 60 statements
on the Stereotypes About Male Sexuality Scale using a
5-point Likert scale. The items are recoded so that A=+2,
B=+1, C=0, D=-1, and E=-2, so that the anchors range from
agree (+2) to disagree (-2). The items assigned to each
subscale are: (1) Inexpressiveness (1, 11, 21, 31, 41,
51); (2) Sex Equals Performance (2, 12, 22, 32, 42, 52);
(3) Males Orchestrate Sex (3, 13, 23, 33, 43, 53); (4)
Always Ready for Sex (4, 14, 24, 34, 44, 54); (5)
Touching Leads to Sex (5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55); (6) Sex
Equals Intercourse (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56); (7) Sex
Requires Erection (7, 17, 27, 37, 47, 57); (8) Sex
Requires Orgasm (8, 18, 28, 38, 48, 58); (9) Spontaneous
Sex (9, 19, 29, 39, 49, 59); and (10) Sexually Aware Men
(10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60). Higher subscale scores thus
correspond to greater agreement with the ten cognitive
beliefs measured by the SAMSS.
- The alpha values for these ten subscales
range from a low of .63 to a high of .93 with an average
of .80 (Snell et al., 1986).
Snell et al. (1990) report the results of
2 investigations involving the SAMSS.. In the first
study, the relationship between the SAMSS and two gender
role measures were examined. The results revealed that
the restrictive emotionality aspect of the masculine role
was strongly associated with stereotypic beliefs about
male sexuality (Doyle, 1989; Gould, 1982; Gross, 1978;
Herek, 1987; Mosher & Anderson, 1986; Mosher &
Sirkin, 1984). Other gender role preferences and
behaviors were also found to be positively associated
with conventional "performance" approaches to
male sexuality. In the second investigation, counseling
trainees were asked to describe how mentally healthy
adult men and women would respond to the Stereotypes
About Male Sexuality Scale. The responses of both male
and female intraining counselors indicated that they
expected mentally healthy males: (a) to reject inhibited,
control, and constant readiness approaches to the
expression of male sexuality and (b) to express greater
disagreement toward defining male sexuality only in terms
of sexual intercourse and toward viewing males as
inherently knowledgeable about sex. These results thus
provide evidence for the importance of the SAMSS and a
cognitive approach to the study of male sexuality.
Finally, the SAMSS has been found to correlate
significantly and negatively with the use of bilateral
social influence strategies (Snell et al., 1988), thus
providing evidence for the validity of the SAMSS in that
conventional beliefs about sex, as measured by the SAMSS,
were expected to be associated with the use of selfish
(versus bilateral) influence strategy use with an
- Doyle, J. A. (1989). The male
experience (2nd edition). Dubuque, IA: Brown
- Gould, R. (1982). Sexual
functioning in relation to the changing roles of
men. In K. Solomon & N. Levy (Eds.), Men
in transition: Theory and therapy
(pp.165-173). New York: Plenum.
- Gross, A. E. (1978). The male
role and heterosexual behavior. Journal of
Social Issues, 34(1), 87-107.
- Herek, G. M. (1987). On
heterosexual masculinity: Some phychical
consequences of the social construction of gender
and sexuality. In M. S. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing
men: New directions in research on men and
masculinity (pp. 68-82). Newbury Park, CA:
- Mosher, D. L., & Anderson, R.
D. (1986). Macho personality, sexual aggression,
and reactions to guided imagery of realistic
rape. Journal of Research in Personality, 20,
- Mosher, D. L., & Sirkin, M.
(1984). Measuring a macho personality
constellation. Journal of Research in
Personality, 18, 150-163.
- Snell, W. E., Jr., Belk, S. S.,
& Hawkins, R. C. II. (1986). The Stereotypes
About Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS): Components,
correlates, antecedents, consequences, and
counselor bias. Social and Behavioral Sciences
Documents, 16, 10. (Ms. No. 2747)
- Snell, W. E., Jr., Belk, S. S.,
& Hawkins, R. C. II (1990). Cognitive beliefs
about male sexuality: The impact of gender roles
and counselor perspectives. Journal of
Rational-Emotive Therapy, 8, 249-265.
- Snell, W. E., Jr., Hawkins, R. C.
II, & Belk, S. S. (1988). Stereotypes about
male sexuality and the use of social influence
strategies in intimate relationships. Journal
of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 42-48.
- Tiefer, L. (1987a). In pursuit of
the perfect penis: The medicalization of male
sexuality. In M. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing men:
New directions in research on men and masculinity
(pp. 165-184). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- Zilbergeld, B. (1978). Male
sexuality. Boston: Little, Brown.
- Permission is granted to individuals to
the Stereotypes About Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS)
for research purposes.
Permission granted by William E. Snell, Jr. on February
This site was last updated on
Sunday, June 17, 2007
Psychology, SE Missouri State
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Copyright @ 1997 to Dr. William E. Snell, Jr.