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This page shows a copy of the Sexual Awareness Scale (SAS).

The Sexual Awareness Scale (SAS)
by
William E. Snell, Jr. @ SE Missouri State University 
Terri D. Fisher @ The Ohio State University at Mansfield
Rowland S. Miller @ Sam Houston State University
Address all correspondence to William E. Snell, Jr. 
(PHONE: 573-651-2447; FAX: 573-651-2176),
Department of Psychology, One University Plaza #5700, 
SE Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri 63701, USA.
Address E-mail to: wesnell@SEMO.EDU. 
 

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INSTRUCTIONS: The items listed below refer to the sexual aspects of people's lives. Please read each item carefully and decide to what extent it is characteristic of you. Give each item a rating of how much it applies to you by using the following scale:
A = Not at all characteristic of me.
B = Slightly characteristic of me.
C = Somewhat characteristic of me.
D = Moderately characteristic of me.
E = Very characteristic of me.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. I am very aware of my sexual feelings.
2. I wonder whether others think I'm sexy.
3. I'm assertive about the sexual aspects of my life.
4. I'm very aware of my sexual motivations.
5. I'm concerned about the sexual appearance of my body.
6. I'm not very direct about voicing my sexual desires. (R)
7. I'm always trying to understand my sexual feelings.
8. I know immediately when others consider me sexy.
9. I am somewhat passive about expressing my sexual desires. (R)
10. I'm very alert to changes in my sexual desires.
11. I am quick to sense whether others think I'm sexy.
12. I do not hesitate to ask for what I want in a sexual relationship.
13. I am very aware of my sexual tendencies.
14. I usually worry about making a good sexual impression on others.
15. I'm the type of person who insists on having my sexual needs met.
16. I think about my sexual motivations more than most people do.
17. I'm concerned about what other people think of my sex appeal.
18. When it comes to sex, I usually ask for what I want.
19. I reflect about my sexual desires a lot.
20. I never seem to know when I'm turning others on.
21. If I were sexually interested in someone, I'd let that person know.
22. I'm very aware of the way my mind works when I'm sexually aroused.
23. I rarely think about my sex appeal. (R)
24. If I were to have sex with someone, I'd tell my partner what I like.
25. I know what turns me on sexually.
26. I don't care what others think of my sexuality.
27. I don't let others tell me how to run my sex life.
28. I rarely think about the sexual aspects of my life.
29. I know when others think I'm sexy.
30. If I were to have sex with someone, I'd let my partner take the initiative. (R)
31. I don't think about my sexuality very much. (R)
32. Other people's opinions of my sexuality don't matter very much to me. (R)
33. I would ask about sexually-transmitted diseases before having sex with someone.
34. I don't consider myself a very sexual person.
35. When I'm with others, I want to look sexy.
36. If I wanted to practice "safe sex" with someone, I would insist on doing so.
Copyright - 1991

Scoring Instructions for 
the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ):
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Purpose:
    The Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ; Snell, Fisher, & Miller, 1991) is an objective, self-report instrument designed to measure four personality tendencies associated with sexual awareness and sexual assertiveness: (1) sexual-consciousness, defined as the tendency to think and reflect about the nature of one=s sexuality; (2) sexual-preoccupation, defined as the tendency to think about sex to an excessive degree; (3) sexual-monitoring, defined as the tendency to be aware of the public impression which one=s sexuality makes on others; and (4) sexual-assertiveness, defined as the tendency to be assertive about the sexual aspects of one=s life. Factor analyses confirmed that the items on the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire largely form conceptual clusters corresponding to the 4 SAQ concepts (Snell et al., 1991). Other results indicated that all 4 subscales had clearly acceptable levels of reliability. Additional findings reported by Snell et al. (1991) provided evidence supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the SAQ. Scores in the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire can be treated as individual difference measures of the 4 distinct constructs measured by the SAQ or as dependent variables when examining predictive correlates of these concepts.
Description
    The Sexual Awareness Questionnaire consists of 36 items arranged in a format where respondents indicate how characteristic of them each statement is. A 5-point Likert scale is used to collect data on peoples' responses, with each item being scored from 0 to 4: Not at all characteristic of me (0), Slightly characteristic of me (1), Somewhat characteristic of me (2), Moderately characteristic of me (3), Very characteristic of me (4). In order to create subscale scores (discussed below), the items on each subscale are summed. Higher scores thus correspond to greater amounts of the relevant tendency. To confirm the conceptual dimensions assumed to underlie the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire, the items on the SAQ were subjected to a principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation. Four factors accounting for 42% of the variance were interpreted. The first factor contained items that pertained to sexual-consciousness (items 1, 4, 10, 13, 22, and 25). The items on the second factor (items 2, 5, 14, 17, 23, 26, 28, 31, and 32) referred to sexual-monitoring tendencies. The third factor was composed of items assessing sexual-assertiveness (items 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24), and the fourth factor was concerned with sex-appeal-consciousness (items 8, 11, and 29). A second cross-validation factor analysis reported by Snell et al. (1991) also showed that the SAQ subscales were factorially consistent with the anticipated factor structure. The results of these statistical analyses provided strong preliminary evidence supporting the factor structure of the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ).
Scoring
    The Sexual Awareness Questionnaire consists of 36 items. All of the SAQ items are coded so that A = 4; B = 3; C = 2; D = 1; and E = 0--except for 6 specific items which are reverse coded (items 23, 31, 32, 30, 6, and 9); these items are designated with an "R" on the copy of the SAQ (shown below). The relevant items on each subscale are first coded so that A = 0; B = 1; C = 2; D = 3; and E = 4. Next, the items on each subscale are summed, so that higher scores correspond to greater amounts of each respective psychological tendency. Scores on the sexual-consciousness subscale can range from 0 to 24; sexual-monitoring scores can range from 0 to 32; sexual-assertiveness scores can range from 0 to 36; and scores on sex-appeal-consciousness subscale can range from 0 to 12.
Reliability
    The internal consistency of the four subscales on the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach alpha coefficients, using participants from 2 separate samples (Sample I consisted of 265 females, 117 males, and 4 gender unspecified; Sample II consisted of 265 females, 117 males, and 4 gender unspecified) drawn from lower division psychology courses at a small Midwestern university (Snell et al., 1991). The average age of Sample I was 24.1, with a range of 17 to 60; whereas the average age of Sample II was 24.07, with a standard deviation of 6.87. Results indicated that all 4 subscales had clearly acceptable levels of reliability (Snell et al., 1991). In Sample I the alphas were: for sexual-consciousness, alpha = .83 for males and .86 for females; for sexual-monitoring, alpha = .80 for males and .82 for females; for sex-appeal-consciousness, alpha = .89 for males and .92 for females; and for sexual-assertiveness, alpha = .83 for males and .81 for females. For Sample II, the internal consistency of the sexual-consciousness subscale was .85 for males and .88 for females; for sexual-monitoring, .81 for males and .82 for females; for sex-appeal-consciousness, .92 for males and .92 for females; and for sexual-assertiveness, .80 for males and .85 for females.
Validity
    Evidence for the validity of the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ) comes from a variety of findings. Snell et al. (1991) provided evidence supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the SAQ. All four SAQ subscales tended to be negatively related to measures of sex-anxiety and sex-guilt for both males and females, and sexual-consciousness was directly related to erotophilic feelings. Other findings indicated that women=s and men=s responses to the four SAQ subscales were related in a predictable fashion to their sexual attitudes, dispositions, and behaviors. Other findings indicated that men reported greater sexual-assertiveness than did women, with no gender differences found for seuxal-consciousness, sexual-monitoring, or sex-appeal-consciousness. Another study by Snell (1995) revealed that sexual-assertiveness in both males and females was predictive of greater contraceptive use, but only among males was sexual-consciousness and sexual-monitoring found to predict more favorable attitudes toward condom use. In addition, for both females and males, sexual-consciousness, sexual-monitoring, and sexual-assertiveness were positively associated with a greater variety and a more extensive history of sexual experiences.
References
    Snell, W. E., Jr., Fisher, T. D., & Miller, R. S. (1991). Development of the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire: Components, reliability, and validity. Annals of Sex Research, 4, 65-92.

    Snell, W. E., Jr., & Wooldridge, D. G. (1998). Sexual awareness: Contraception, sexual behaviors and
sexual attitudes. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 13, 191-199.

    Snell, W. E., Jr. (1994, April). Sexual awareness: contraception, sexual behaviors and sexual attitudes. Paper presented at the 63rd annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Tulsa, OK.
   
 

Permission is granted to individuals to use
 the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ) for research purposes.
Permission granted by William E. Snell, Jr. on February 14, 1997.

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This site was last updated on June 17, 2007 .
Department of Psychology, SE Missouri State University
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Copyright @ 1997 to Dr. William E. Snell, Jr.