Visits:  Hit Counter

The Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ)
by
Dr. William E. Snell, Jr.

This page shows a copy of the Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ).


Page 1

INSTRUCTIONS: Listed below are several statements that concern the topic of parenting. Please read each item carefully and decide to what extent it is characteristic of you. Whenever possible, answer the questions with your current children in mind. If you have never had children, answer in terms of what you think your responses would most likely be if you were to ever have children.. Then, for each statement darken the response on the answer sheet that indicates how much it applies to you by using this scale:

******************************************************************************************************************************************************

          A = Not at all characteristic of me.

          B = Slightly characteristic of me.

          C = Somewhat characteristic of me.

          D = Moderately characteristic of me.

          E = Very characteristic of me.

*****************************************************************************************************************************************************

1. I set very high standards for myself as a parent.

2. Only if I am "perfect" as a parent will society consider me to be a good parent.

3. My partner sets very high standards of excellence for herself/himself as a parent.

4. My partner expects me to be a perfect parent.

5. I expect my partner to always be a top-notch and competent parent.

6. I must always be successful as a parent.

7. Most people in society expect me to always be a perfect parent.

8. My partner is perfectionistic in that she/he expects to be a perfect parent all the time.

9. My partner demands nothing less than perfection of me as a parent.

10. My partner should never let me down when it comes to being a parent.

11. One of my goals is to be a "perfect" parent.

12. Most people expect me to always be an excellent parent.

13. It makes my partner uneasy for him/her to be less than a perfect parent.

14. My partner always wants me to be a perfect parent.

15. I cannot stand for my partner to be less than a competent parent.

16. I always feel the need to be a "perfect" parent.

17. I have to be a perfect parent in order for most people to regard me as okay.

18. My partner sets very high, perfectionistic goals for herself (himself) as a parent.

19. My partner pressures me to be a perfect parent.

20. I expect nothing less than "parental perfectionism" from my partner.

21. I always pressure myself to be the best parent in the world.

22. In order for people to accept me, I have to be the greatest parent in the world.

23. My partner is always trying to be totally perfect as a parent.

24. My partner has very high perfectionistic goals for me as a parent.

25. I will appreciate my partner, but only if she/he is a perfect parent.

26. I have very high perfectionistic goals for myself as a parent.

27. Most people expect me to be perfectionistic when it comes to being a parent.

28. My partner always feels that she/he has to be the best possible parent.

29. In order for my partner to appreciate me, I have to be a perfect parent.

30. I expect my partner to try to be perfectionistic when it comes to parenting behavior.


Page 2

INSTRUCTIONS: Listed below are several statements that concern the topic of parenting. Please read each item carefully and decide to what extent it is characteristic of you. Whenever possible, answer the questions with your current children in mind. If you have never had children, answer in terms of what you think your responses would most likely be if you were to ever have children. Then, for each statement darken the response on the answer sheet that indicates how much it applies to you by using this scale:

********************************************************************************************************************************************

          A = Not at all characteristic of me.

          B = Slightly characteristic of me.

          C = Somewhat characteristic of me.

          D = Moderately characteristic of me.

          E = Very characteristic of me.

********************************************************************************************************************************************

1. My spouse/partner sets very high parenting standards for me.

2. Being organized as a parent is very important to me.

3. My spouse/partner has criticized me for being less than a perfect parent.

4. If I do not set the highest standards for myself, I am likely to end up a second rate parent.

5. My spouse/partner never tries to understand my mistakes/shortcomings as a parent.

6. It is important to me that I am thoroughly competent in everything I do as a parent.

7. I am rather neat (i.e., not messy) as a parent.

8. I try to take an organized approach to being a parent.

9. If I fail to rear my children well, I would be a total failure as a person.

10. I should be upset if I make a mistake in rearing my children.

11. My spouse/partner wants me to be the best possible parent in the entire world.

12. I set higher goals for myself as a parent than do most people.

13. If someone were a better parent than I, then I would feel like a complete failure as a parent.

14. If I fail in even a small way to be a totally good parent, it is as bad as being completely inadequate.

15. Only when I am an "outstanding" parent is it good enough for my spouse/partner.

16. I am very good at focusing my efforts and time at being a good parent.

17. Even when I am very careful as a parent, I often feel that I failed to do something quite right.

18. I hate being less than the best possible parent.

19. I have extremely high goals for myself as a parent.

20. My spouse/partner expects "parenting excellence" from me.

21. My spouse/partner would probably think less of me if I made a mistake in parenting.

22. I never feel like I can meet my spouse/partner's expectations for me as a parent.

23. If I am not as good a parent as other people, it means I am an inferior parent.

24. Other people seem to accept less from themselves as a parent than I do for myself.

25. If I do not constantly attend to our children, my spouse/partner will not respect me as a parent.

26. My spouse/partner has always had higher expectations for me as a parent than I have.

27. I try to be an organized and neat parent.

28. I usually have doubts about even the simple things I do and say as a parent.

29. As a parent, orderliness (and neatness) is very important to me.

30. I expect more of myself as a parent than most people.

31. I take an organized approach to being a parent.

32. I tend to have problems as a parent, because I keep doing things the same old way.

33. It takes me a long time to do something "right" as a parent.

34. The fewer mistakes I make as a parent, the more my spouse/partner will like me.

35. I never feel like I can meet my spouse/partner's standards for good parenting behavior.
 



Scoring Instructions for the 
Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ).

*

    INSTRUCTIONS: The Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ; Snell, Overbey, & Brewer, 2005) is a two-section self-report measure designed to measure several components/aspects of the construct of parenting perfectionism.

    SECTION I: Section I of the MPPQ consists of 30 items that comprise 5 subscales related to the construct of parenting perfectionism (cf. Hewitt, Flett, Turnbull-Donovan, & Mikail, 1991): (1) self-oriented parenting perfectionism (SOPP; which involves extremely high self-standards for oneself as a parent and an excessive motivation to be a perfect parent (items 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, and 26); (2) societal prescribed parenting perfectionism (SPPP; which involves a belief that society in general expects one to be a perfect parent) (items 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, and 27); (3) partner's self-oriented parenting perfectionism (PSOPP; which involves a person's belief that her/his spouse sets extremely and excessively high self-standards for herself/himself as a parent) (items 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, and 28); (4) partner prescribed parenting perfectionism (PPPP; which involves a belief that the respondent's spouse/partner expects the respondent to be a perfect parent) (items 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, and 29); and (5) partner expected standards for parenting (PESP; which involves the respondent's unrealistic and perfectionistic parenting expectations for her/his spouse/partner) (items 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30)

    SECTION II: Section II of the MPPQ consists of 35 items that comprise 6 additional subscales related to the construct of parenting perfectionism (cf. Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990): (1) concern over parenting mistakes (COPM; defined as being overly self critical about one's parenting abilities) (items PB9+PB10+PB13+PB14+PB18+PB21+PB23+PB25+PB34); (2) doubts about parenting activity (DPA; defined as a general dissatisfaction with or uncertainty about the quality of one's parenting behaviors) (items PB17+PB28+PB32+PB33); (3) personal parenting standards (PPS; defined as the setting of excessively high standards of parenting) (items PB4+PB6+PB12+PB16+PB19+PB24+PB30); (4) partner's parenting expectations (PPE; defined as the tendency to have perfectionistic personal expectations about one's parenting behavior) (items PB1+PB11+PB15+PB20+PB26); (5) partner's parenting criticism (PPC; defined as critical evaluations and expectations about one's parenting from one's partner/spouse) (items PB3+PB5+PB22+PB35); and (6) parental organization (PO; defined as a person's tendency to emphasize orderliness and precision in the day to day activities of parenting) (items PB2+PB7+PB8+PB27+PB29+PB31). 

        Response to the MPPQ items are measured on a 5-point Likert scale: not at all characteristic of me (0), slightly characteristic of me (1), somewhat characteristic of me (2), moderately characteristic of me (3), and very characteristic of me (4). MPPQ subscale scores are computed by summing the responses to the items assigned to each subscale. In all cases, higher scores correspond to greater amounts of each respective perfectionistic tendency.


These are SPSS compute and variable label commands for the MPPQ:


COMMENT ********************************************************
COMMENT *** PAGE 1 OF THE MPPQ
COMMENT ********************************************************
COMPUTE     SOPP =PA1+PA6+ PA11+PA16+PA21+PA26
COMPUTE     SPPP =PA2+PA7+ PA12+PA17+PA22+PA27
COMPUTE     PSOPP=PA3+PA8+ PA13+PA18+PA23+PA28
COMPUTE     PPPP =PA4+PA9+ PA14+PA19+PA24+PA29
COMPUTE     PESP =PA5+PA10+PA15+PA20+PA25+PA30
VAR LABELS  SOPP 
  SELF ORIENTED PARENTING PERFECTIONISM
VAR LABELS  SPPP  SOCIAL PRESCRIBED PARENTING PERFECTIONISM
VAR LABELS  PSOPP PARTNER'S SELF ORIENTED PARENTING PERFECTION
VAR LABELS  PPPP  PARTNER'S PRESCRIBED PARENTING PERFECTIONISM
VAR LABELS  PESP  PARTNER EXPECTED STANDARDS FOR PARENTING 
COMMENT     ****************************************************
COMMENT     *** PAGE 2 OF THE MPPQ
COMMENT     ****************************************************
COMPUTE     CPM=PB9+PB10+PB13+PB14+PB18+PB21+PB23+PB25+PB34
COMPUTE     PPS=PB4+PB6+PB12+PB16+PB19+PB24+PB30
COMPUTE     PPE=PB1+PB11+PB15+PB20+PB26
COMPUTE     PPC=PB3+PB5+PB22+PB35
COMPUTE     DPA=PB17+PB28+PB32+PB33
COMPUTE     PO =PB2+PB7+PB8+PB27+PB29+PB31
COMMENT     ****************************************************
VAR LABEL   CPM CONCERN OVER PARENTING MISTAKES-CPM
VAR LABEL   PPS PERSONAL PARENTING STANDARDS-PPS
VAR LABEL   PPE PARTNER PARENTING EXPECTATIONS-PPE
VAR LABEL   PPC PARTNER PARENTING CRITICISM-PPC
VAR LABEL   DPA DOUBTS ABOUT PARENTING ACTIVITY-DPA
VAR LABEL   PO  PARENTING ORGANIZATION-PO
COMMENT ********************************************************
 

References

         Frost, R. O., Marten, P. A., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468.
         Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., Turnbull-Donovan, W., & Mikail, S. F. (1991). The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: Reliability, validity, and psychometric properties in psychiatric samples. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 464-468.
         Snell, W. E., Jr., Overbey, G., & Brewer, A. L. (2005). Parenting perfectionism and the parenting role.  Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 613-624.

 

Permission is granted to individuals to use 
the Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire 
for research purposes
Permission granted by William E. Snell, Jr. on February 13, 1997.

 


[ RETURN to Dr. Snell's Homepage ]

This site was last updated on Sunday, June 17, 2007 .
Department of Psychology, SE Missouri State University
Send comments and inquires to
wesnell@semo.edu

Copyright @ 1997
Dr. William E. Snell, Jr.